All of the criterions mentioned above, such as perspective, framing, form, light, colour and lines are also suitable for analysing other genres like painting of photography.
Film differs from these genres in that it is also capable of additionally representing periods of time. When we watch many single frames within a second, our mind turns them into a motion sequence. This is why movies were originally called ‘cinematography’ – the recording of motions. It is what makes movies come alive, and what gives us the feeling of watching reality.
Clearly, the sole reason that the recording of motion pictures makes sense is that movements can be shown. Without them, photography would suffice. Film and motion are inseparable, with the latter being one of the strongest aesthetic powers of a movie.
The chapter „Motion Picture“ gives an overview regarding content and technical criteria for „moving pictures“.
When the camera position remains fixed to the same spot, but its camera head is moved horizontally or vertically, it is called panning. For example, panning is used for imitating a head or an eye-movement of a person. It also gives information regarding where, and in what relation to each other, objects are physically positioned inside a room. Especially when the limitations of the frame only allow seeing one object at a time.
In the past with Standard Definition Formats it was a rule of thumb that when the entire content visible in a long shot was to be covered by a much closer pan shot, the latter one should last at least 7 seconds.
Today, as we have screen formats like HD, 2K and 4K, which are much more detailed, the panning time has to be extended.
The number of frames per second used up to now (24, 25 or 30 frames/second) is not high enough to reproduce faster pans smoothly. They result in unsightly shutter effects.